Current Research





1R01DE022628-01A1            Developing a Patient Safety System for Dentistry     Walji, MF


The major goals of this project are to identify adverse events in dentistry, as an important step towards allowing the dental clinic to become a safer place. The results of this project will help to identify specific strategies and interventions to prevent adverse events from occurring in the future.


1R01DE024166-01A1 Implementing Dental Quality Measures in Practice    Walji/Kalenderian


The objective of this work is to build upon our prior work in developing the BigMouth Dental Data Repository that contains clinical data on 1.1 million patients. In addition, we will be supported by the collective strength of the 35 dental institutions that have formed the Consortium for Oral Health Research and Informatics (COHRI) and have agreed to share oral health data


1U18HS026135-01                 Optimizing Acute Post-Operative Dental Pain                       Kalenderian, E.

NIH/AHRQ                              Management Using New Health Information


In this project we propose an innovative mobile health intervention (FollowApp.Care®) to collect PRO data (pain intensity) from patients after dental procedures to optimize the quality of acute post-op dental pain management


1UG3DE029158-01                Understanding Pain after Dental Procedures             Walji/Kalenderian


Through a two-phase (UG3/UH3) approach, we will systematically explore pain after dental procedures using mobile phones. We propose to develop a detailed, at the CDT procedure level, pain registry by engaging NDPBRN providers and patients undergoing dental surgical procedures.


1 R18 HS027268-01   Open Wide Learning Lab (OWLL):                                    Walji/Kalenderian

Improving Patient Safety in Dentistry

The objective of this application is to advance the dental Patient Safety Initiative by translating our findings from chart reviews to a learning health system where we identify the contributing factors that lead to an adverse event and develop and test improvement strategies to prevent them.



G08LM010075                        Pilot study of the development of an                          Walji, MF

NLM                                        Inter-University Oral Health Research Database

The major goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of creating a central repository and integrating de-identified dental data across dental schools.


1R01DE021051                      A Cognitive Approach to Refine and Enhance Use   Kalenderian, E.

NIH/NIDCR                             of a Dental Diagnostic Terminology

The major goal of this study is to develop standardized and uniform diagnostic dental codes with distinct terms and synonyms that are easy to use, intuitive, inclusive, and can be loaded in the current EHR used by 50 dental schools.


GIES Foundation                    Collaborative pilot study                                                          Reed, S.G.


Collaborative pilot study on the impact of the use of the EZCodes dental diagnostic terminology in treatment planning on critical thinking skills of dental students as measured by the Health Science Reasoning test.

1R21DE023408                      Improving the Quality of Dental Care by                                 Tokede, O.

NIH/NIDCR                             Implementing a Clinical Checklist

The objective of this work is to benchmark quality of dental care and institute processes that will improve it. As a first step, we implemented a checklist for general dental care.


1R41DE025522-01                 Development of an EHR with Comprehensive                       Boyer, B.

NIH/NIDCR (SBIR grant)        Dental Diagnostic and Information Exchange Function         .

The objective of this work is to reduce oral health disparities in both outcomes and care by enhancing the effectiveness of dental providers in the safety net community health centers. To accomplish this goal, the project will create a dental-focused Electronic Health Record (EHR)/Health Information Exchange (HIE) system for safety net providers that includes 1) a standardized terminology for oral diagnoses, using an intuitive, sophisticated User Interface, and 2) effective electronic health information exchange functionality specifically designed to fit in the nationwide safety net IT infrastructure.


1R01DE023061-01A1 A Whole System Approach to Implementing                         Kalenderian, E.

NIH/NIDCR                             total Standardized Dental Diagnostic Terms

The objective of this work is to develop a tested, generalizable process for effectively implementing the EZCodes, in service of the long-term goal of broad dissemination of the benefits of a common dental diagnostic terminology.


1R01HS024406                      Measuring Occurrence of and Disparities in                           Walji, M.F

NIH/NIDCR                             Dental Clinics Adverse Events

The major goals of this project are to (1) give the first comprehensive perspective on adverse events that happen in dental practices, (2) help to identify whether certain groups of people are at higher risk, and (3) provide an estimate of how many more adverse events originating in the dental clinic we might find if we also looked at medical visits.



Peer reviewed publications    

  1. Stark, P.C., Kalenderian, E., White, J.W., Walji, M.F. Stewart, D.C.L., Kimmes, N.S., Meng, Jr., T.R., Willis, J.P., DeVries, T., Chapman R.J. for the Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics (COHRI). Consortium for Oral Health-Related Informatics: Improving Dental Research, Education, and Treatment. J Dent Educ. 2010;74(10): 1051-1065. PMID: 20930236 PMCID: PMC3114442
  2. Kalenderian, E., Ramoni, R., White, J.M., Schoonheim-Klein, M.E., Stark, P.C., Kimmes, N.S., Zeller, G.G., Willis, G.P., Walji, M.F. The Development of a Dental Diagnostic Terminology. J Dent Educ. 2011 Jan;75(1): 68-76. PMID: 21205730 PMCID: PMC3107733
  3. White, J.M., Kalenderian, E., Stark, P.C., Ramoni, R., Vaderhobli, R., Walji, M.F. Evaluating a Dental Diagnostic Terminology in an Electronic Health Record. J Dent Educ. 2011 May;75(5): 605-15. PMID: 21546594 PMCID: PMC3119719
  4. Kalenderian E, Ramoni R.B., White J.M., Schoonheim-Klein M.E., Stark P.C., Kimmes N.S., Patel V.L., Walji M.F. The importance of using diagnostic codes. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011 Jul;112(1): 4-5. PMID: 21669360
  5. Ramoni, R.B., Walji, M.F., White, J.M., Stewart, D.C.L., Vaderhobli, R., Simmons, D., Kalenderian, E. From Good to Better: Towards a Patient Safety Initiative in Dentistry. JADA 2012; 143(9): 956-960 PMID: 22942131 (Ramoni and Walji are co-first authors)
  6. Tokede, O., White, J.M., Stark, P.C., Vaderhobli, R., Walji, M.F., Ramoni, R., Schoonheim-Klein, M.E., Kimmes, N.S., Tavares, A., Kalenderian, E. Assessing the use of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record. J Dent Educ 2013 Jan; 77(1): 24-36 PMID:23314462 NIHMSID: NIHMS387572 PMCID: PMC3545411 (Tokede and White are co-first authors)
  7. Tokede, O., Walji, M.F., Ramoni, R., Schoonheim-Klein, M.E., White, J.M., Vaderhobli, R., Stark, P.C., Kimmes, N.S., Patel, V., Kalenderian, E. Treatment Planning in Dentistry using an electronic health record: implications for undergraduate education. Eur J Dent Educ. 2013 Feb;17(1): e34-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2012.00759.x. Epub 2012 May 18. PMID: 23279411 PMCID:PMC3539210 (Tokede and Walji are co-first authors)
  8. Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E., Tran, D., Kookal, K.K., Nguyen, V., Tokede, O., White J.M., Vaderhobli, R., Ramoni, R., Stark, P.C., Kimmes N.S., Schoonheim-Klein M.E., and Patel, V. Detection and characterization of usability problems in structured data entry interfaces in dentistry. Int J Med Inform. 2013 Feb;82(2): 128-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2012.05.018. Epub 2012 Jun 29. PMID: 22749840 PMCID:PMC3492538 (Walji and Kalenderian are co-first authors)
  9. Kalenderian, E., Walji, M.F., Tavares, A., Ramoni, R. An adverse event trigger tool in dentistry: A new methodology for measuring harm in the dental office. JADA 2013;144(7): 808-814 PMID: 23813262 (Kalenderian and Walji are co-first authors)
  10. Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E., Piotrowski, P., Tran, D., Kookal, K.K., Tokede, O., White J.M., Vaderhobli, R., Ramoni, R., Stark, P.S., Kimmes N.S., Lagerweij, M., and Patel, V. Are Three Methods Better Than One? A Comparative Assessment of Usability Evaluation Methods in an EHR. Int J Med Inform 2014 May; 83(5): 361-7. doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2014.01.010. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PMCID: 4058821 PMID: 24583045 (Walji and Kalenderian are co-first authors)
  11. Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E., Stark, P., White, J., Kookal, K., Phan, D., Tran, D., Bernstam, E., Ramoni, R. BigMouth: A Multi-Institutional Dental Data Repository. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2014 Jul 3. pii: amiajnl-2013-002230. doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2013-002230. PMID: 24993547 PMCID:PMC4215035 (Walji and Kalenderian are co-first authors)
  12. Obadan, E.M., Ramoni, R.B., Kalenderian, E. Lessons learnt from Dental Patient Safety Case Reports. JADA 2015 May;146(5): 318-26.e2. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2015.01.003. Review. PMID: 25925524 PMCID:4418181 (Obadan and Ramoni are co-first authors)
  13. Reed, S.G., Adibi, S.S., Coover, M., Gellin, R.G., Wahlquist, A.E., AbdulRahiman, A., Hamil, L.H., Walji, M.F., O’Neill, P., Kalenderian E. Does use of an electronic health record with dental diagnostic system terminology promote dental students’ critical thinking? J Dent Educ. 2015 Jun;79(6): 686-96. PMID: 26034034. PMCID:PMC4593405
  14. Ramoni, R.B., Walji, M.F., Kim, S., Tokede, O., McClellan, L., Simmons, K., Skourtes, E., Yansane, A., White, J.M., Kalenderian, E. Attitudes and beliefs toward the use of a dental diagnostic terminology A survey of dental providers in a dental practice, JADA 2015 Jun;146(6): 390-397. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2015.02.007. PMID: 26025826 PMCID:PMC4450444 (Ramoni, Walji, and Kim are co-first authors)
  15. Kalenderian E., Tokede B., Ramoni, R.B., Khan, M., Phan, D.Q., Kimmes, N., White, J.M., Vaderhobli, R., Yansane, A., Feilzer, A.F. Walji, M.F. Dental clinical research: an illustration of the value of standardized diagnostic terms. J Public Health Dent 2016;76(2):152-6. PMID: 26517578 (Kalenderian and Tokede are co-first authors)
  16. Bhardwaj, A., Ramoni, R., Kalenderian, E., Neumann, A., Hebballi, N.B., White, J.M., McClellan, L., Walji, M.F. Measuring Up: Implementing a Dental Quality Measure in the Electronic Health Record Context. JADA 2016 Jan;147(1):35-40. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2015.06.023. Epub 2015 Nov 6. PMID: 26562736 PMCID: PMC4706780 (Bhardwaj, Ramoni, and Kalenderian are co-first authors)
  17. Maramaldi, M., Walji, M.F., White, J.M., Etolue, J., Kahn. M., Vaderhobli, R., Kwatra, J., Delattre, V.F., Hebballi, N.B., Stewart, D., Kent, K., Yansane, A., Ramoni, R.B., Kalenderian, E. How Dental Team Members describe Adverse Events. JADA, 2016. 147(10):803-811 doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2016.04.015 PMID: 27269376 PMCID:PMC5045777 (Maramaldi and Walji are co-first authors)
  18. Kalenderian, E., Maramaldi, P., Kim, S., Etolue, J., McClellan, L., Simmons, K., Yansane, A., White, J.M., Walji, M.F., Ramoni, R.B. Strategic Shift to a Diagnostic Model of Care in a Multi-Site Group Dental Practice. Int J Dent Oral Health 2016; 2(4) doi:10.16966/2378-7090.209 PMID 28042605 PMCID: PMC519479
  19. Tokede, O., DaSilva, J., Yansane, A., Kalenderian, E. Clinical Documentation of Dental Care in an Era of EHR Use. The Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice. July 2016; doi:10.1016/j.jebdp.2016.07.001 PMID: 27855830 PMCID:PMC5119920
  20. Ramoni, R.B., Etolue, J., Tokede, O., McLellan, L., Simmons, K., Yansane, A., White, J.M., Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E. Adoption of dental innovations: The Case of a Standardized Dental Diagnostic Terminology. JADA May 2017;148(5):319-327 doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2017.01.024. PMID 28364948 PMCID: PMC5409886
  21. Neumann, A., Kalenderian, E., Ramoni, R., Yansane, A., Tokede, O., Etoule, J., Vaderhobli, R., Simmons, K., Even, J., Mullins, J., Kumar, S., Bangar, S., Kookal, K., White, J., Walji, M. Evaluating quality of dental care among patients with diabetes. Adaptation and testing of a dental quality measure in electronic health records. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017 Sep; 148(9):634-643.e1. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2017.04.017 PMID: 28624074 (Neuman and Kalenderian are co-first-authors)
  22. Kalenderian, E., Obadan-Udoh, E., Maramaldi, P., Etolue, J., Yansane, A., Stewart, D., White, J., Vaderhobli, R., Kent, K., Hebballi, N.B., Delattre, V., Kahn, M., Tokede, O., Ramoni, R.B., Walji, M.F. Classifying Adverse Events in the Dental Office. J Patient Saf. 2017 Jun 30. doi: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000407. PMID: 28671915 PMCID:PMC5748012 (Kalenderian and Obadan-Udoh are co-first authors)
  23. Obadan-Udoh, E., Simon, L., Etolue, J., Tokede, O., White, J.M., Spallek, H., Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E. Dental Providers’ Perspectives on Diagnosis-Driven Dentistry: Strategies to Enhance Adoption of Dental Diagnostic Terminology. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 767; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070767. PMID: 28703751 PMCID: C5551205 (Obadan-Udoh and Simon are co-first authors)
  24. Nikdel, C., Nikdel, K., Ibarra-Noriega, A., Kalenderian, E., Walji MF. Clinical Dental Faculty Members’ Perceptions of Diagnostic Errors and How to Avoid Them. J Dent Educ 2018; 82(4):340-348; doi: 10.21815/JDE.018.037
  25. Tokede O, Walji M, Ramoni R, Rindal DB, Worley D, Hebballi N, Kumar K, van Strien C, Chen M, Navat-Pelli S, Liu H, Etolue J, Yansane A, Obadan-Udoh E, Easterday C, Enstad C, Kane S, Rush W, Kalenderian E. Quantifying Dental-Office Originating Adverse Events: The Dental Practice Study Methods. J Patient Saf. 2017 Dec 5. doi: 10.1097/PTS.0000000000000444. PMID: 29206706
  26. Kalenderian, E., Ramoni, R., White, JM., Walji, MF. Standardized Dental Diagnostic Terminology. Ann Dent Oral Health. 2018; 1: 1002.
  27. Kumar, S.V., Bangar, S., Neumann, A., Kookal, K.K., Yansane, A., Tokede, O., Obadan-Udoh, E., Mertz, E., Simmons, K., Even, J., Mullins, J., White, J., Kalenderian, E., Walji, M.F. Assessing Validity of Existing Dental Sealant Quality Measures. J Am Dent Assoc. 2018 Sep;149(9):756-764.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2018.05.001. Epub 2018 Jul 4. PMID:29980245.
  28. Kalenderian, E. Obadan-Udoh, E., Yansane, A., Kent, K., Hebballi, N.B., Delattre, V., Kookal, K.K., Tokede, O., White, J.M., Walji, M.F. Feasibility of Electronic Health Record-based Triggers in Detecting Dental Adverse Events. Applied Clinical Informatics 2018; 9(3):646-653 ISSN 1869-0327.
  29. Neumann, A., Kumar, S., Bangar, S., Kookal, K., Spallek, H., Tokede, B., Simmons, K., Even, J., Mullins, J., Mertz, E., Yansane, A., Obadan-Udoh, E., White, J.M., Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E. Tobacco Screening and Cessation Efforts by Dental Providers: a quality measure evaluation. J Public Health Dent. 2019 Spring, 79(2):93-101 doi: 10.1111/jphd.12298. ISSN 0022-4006
  30. Yansane, A., Tokede, B., Etolue, J., Walji, M., Obadan-Udoh, E., Kalenderian, E. Utilization and Validity of the Dental Diagnostic System Over Time in Academic and Private Practice. JDR Clinical & Translational Research. 2019 Apr; 4(2):143-150.
  31. Simon, L., Obadan-Udoh, E., Yansane, A., Gharpure, A., Licht, S., Calvo, J., Deschner, J., Damanaki, A., Hackenberg, B., Walji, M.F., Spallek, H., Kalenderian, E. Towards the Interoperability of Electronic Medical and Dental Records: An Exploratory Study. Applied Clinical Informatics. 2019; 10(3):10:367-376. doi: ISSN 1869-0327.
  32. Neumann, A., Obadan-Udoh, E., Bangar, S., Tokede, B., Yansane, A., Mertz, E., Panwar, S., Gharpure, A., Kookal, K., Mullins, J., Even, J., Simmons, K., White, J.M., Walji, M.F., Kalenderian, E.Number of Pregnant Women at Four Dental Clinics and the Care They Received: A Dental Quality eMeasure Evaluation. J Dent Educ 2019;83(10):1158-65; doi:
  33. Yansane, A. Lee, J.H., Hebballi, N., Obadan-Udoh, E., White, J., Walji, M., Easterday, C., Rindal, B., Worley, D., Kalenderian, E. Assessing the Patient Safety Culture in Dentistry. JDR Clinical & Translational Research. 2019 In Press
  34. Walji, M.F., Yansane, A., Hebballi, N.B., Ibarra-Noriega, A.M., Kookal, K., Tungare, S., Kent, K., McPharlin, R., Delattre, V., Obadan-Udoh, E., Tokede, O., White, J.M., Kalenderian, E. Finding Dental Harm to Patients through Electronic Health Record-based Triggers. JDR Clinical & Translational Research. 2019 In Press